Legally, there is no difference in terms of validity between “Simple”, “Advanced” and “Qualified” signatures. Their legal effect and admissibility in court cannot be denied in any state within the European Union. The “Qualified” signature simply benefits from a presumption of reliability.
The “Simple” signature is, by default, that which does not meet the requirements of the “Advanced” or “Qualified” categories. Authentication of signatories usually results in sending a One-Time Password (OTP) to the signatory’s mobile phone after clicking on a link received by email.
The “Advanced” signature must meet the following requirements :
On Closd, these requirements are met by combining the transmission of an OTP code via mobile phone and the user’s email and password combination with two other factors, making it possible to establish with certainty the identity of the signatory: an automated ID verification and a secure password to access Closd.
From a probative point of view, these authentication methods create a solid body of evidence in addition to the eIDAS certification. Challenging a signature made on Closd would require proving the hacking of the mailbox, the theft of the mobile phone and the theft or falsification of a copy of the signatory’s identity document.
The “Qualified” signature legally corresponds to an “Advanced” signature with reinforced technical requirements and requires the issuance of a certificate following a face-to-face verification of the signatory’s identity (by physical meeting or videoconference). The advantages of the electronic signature (mobility and speed) can be greatly reduced by this process.